Wednesday, August 10, 2016

Full Judgment Click Here

Tags : - criminal conspiracy; Section 120-A/ 43 IPC; Prevention of Corruption Act; 'illegal'; Section 438 Cr PC; anticipatory bail; necessity of custodial interrogation; duty of police; 'custody'; 'interrogation'; “right to remain silent”; third-degree method; 

Niranjan Tripathy v. Odisha

"70. While dealing with the facet of criminal conspiracy, it has to be kept in mind that in a case of conspiracy, there cannot be any direct evidence. Express agreement between the parties cannot be proved. Circumstances proved before, during and after the occurrence have to be considered to decide about the complicity of the accused. Such a conspiracy is never hatched in open and, therefore, evaluation of proved circumstances plays a vital role in establishing the criminal conspiracy."

But this contention ignores the scope of offence of criminal conspiracy. Section 120-A of Indian Penal Code defines "criminal conspiracy" and under that definition "When two or more persons agree to do, or cause to be done, an illegal act or an act which is not illegal by illegal means, such an agreement is designated a criminal conspiracy"
The gist of offence is an agreement to break the law. The parties to such an agreement will be guilty of criminal conspiracy though the illegal act agree to be done has not been done. So, too, it is not an ingredient of the offence that all the parties should agree to do a single illegal acts. It may comprise the commission of a number of acts. Under section 43 of I.P.C., an act would be illegal if it is an offence or if it is prohibited by law. Under the first charge, the accused are charged with having conspired to do three categories of illegal act and the mere fact that all of them could not be convicted separately in respect of each of the offences has no relevancy in considering the question whether the offence of conspiracy has been committed. They are all guilty of the offence of conspiracy to illegal acts, though for individual offence all of them may not be liable".
7. The basic ingredients of the offence of criminal conspiracy as defined under section 120-AI.P.C. are
(i) An agreement between two or more persons;
(ii) The agreement must relate to doing or causing to be done either (a) an illegal act; or (b) an act which is not illegal in itself but is done by illegal means.

The meeting of minds of two or more persons for doing or causing to be done an illegal act or an act by illegal means is the sine qua non of criminal conspiracy. The offence can be proved largely from the inferences drawn from the acts or illegal omission committed by the conspirators in pursuance of a common design in as much as the conspiracy is always hatched in secrecy and it is impossible to adduce direct evidence of the common intention of the conspirators. The entire agreement is to be viewed as a whole and it has to be ascertained as to what in fact the conspirators intended to do or the object they wanted to achieve. The essence of criminal conspiracy is the unlawful combination and ordinarily the offence is complete when the combination is framed. Encouragement and support which co-conspirators give to one another rendering enterprises possible which, if left to individual effort, would have been impossible, furnish the ground for visiting conspirators and abettors with condign punishment (Ref:-AIR 2008 SC 2991, Yogesh @ Sachin Jagdish Joshi -v- State of Maharashtra; (1980) 2 SCC 465, Shivnarayan Laxminarayan Joshi -v- State of Maharastra, 2013 (3) SCALE 565, Yakub Abdul Razaq Menon -v- State of Maharashtra; AIR 2005 SC 128, K. Hasim -v- State of Tamil Nadu).

The statements of all those witnesses pointed out by the learned counsel for the Vigilance Department and other documents seized during course of investigation cannot be discussed in a detailed manner at this stage as the matter is under investigation.

The legislature in its wisdom has entrusted the power to exercise this jurisdiction only to the judges of the superior courts."

"7....The gravity of the offence is an important factor to be taken into consideration while granting such anticipatory bail so also the need for custodial interrogation, but these are only factors that must be borne in mind by the concerned courts while entertaining a petition for grant of anticipatory bail and the fact of taking cognizance or filing of charge sheet cannot by themselves be construed as a prohibition against the grant of anticipatory bail."
In case of Maruti Nivrutti Navale -v- State of Maharashtra reported in 2012 (8) SCALE 572, wherein it is held as follows:-

"12.....It is true that the parties have also approached the Civil Court for various reliefs. At the same time, as pointed out by counsel for the State and the second respondent-Complainant, considering the seriousness relating to corrections/additions/alterations made in various documents, information furnished tThe argument that the custodial interrogation is fraught with the danger of the person being subjected to third degree methods need not be countenanced, for, such an argument can be advanced by all accused in all criminal cases. The Court has to presume that responsible police officers would conduct themselves in a responsible manner and that those entrusted with the task of disinterring offences would not conduct themselves as offenders."
What is "custodial interrogation"? "Custody" means formal arrest or the deprivation of freedom to an extent associated with formal arrest. "Interrogation" means explicit questioning or actions that are reasonably likely to elicit an incriminating response. Questioning initiated by law enforcement officers after a person is taken into custody or otherwise deprived of his or her freedom in any significant way is called "custodial interrogation". The Court has to strike a balance between individual's right to personal freedom and the investigational rights of the police. On one hand, the Court has to prevent harassment, humilition and unjustified detention of an accused, on the other hand it is to see that a free, fair and full investigation is not hampered in any manner. When an application for anticipatory bail of an accused is objected to by the State on the ground of necessity of custodial interrogation, the Court can scan the materials available on record and ask the State to satisfy as to in what way the custodial interrogation would benefit the prosecution. The satisfaction of the Court would depend upon several facts viz., the nature of offence, the stage at which the investigation is pending, the materials which could not be traced out by the Investigating Agency due to absence of custodial interrogation and the benefit which the prosecution would get on account of custodial interrogation of the accused. It cannot be stated that in a particular type of cases or for a particular type of accused, the custodial interrogation is mandatory. It would all depend upon the facts and circumstances of each case. No strait jacket formula could be laid down. When the accused makes out a case for anticipatory bail, it is not to be defeated by mere asking for custodial interrogation by the prosecution without satisfying the necessity for the same. Sometimes the custodial interrogation of suspects would give clue regarding criminal conspiracy and identity of the conspirators and it may lead to confession of guilt and recovery of the incriminating materials. Sometimes at the crucial stage of investigation, the custodial interrogation would be a boon to the Investigating Officer. The person in custody likely to be interrogated has a right to remain silent. On some questions, he may answer and on some questions, he may remain silent or refuse to answer. Nobody can be compelled to answer to a particular question. No third-degree method is to be adopted for elicitating any answer. It is illegal to employ coercive measures to compel a person to answer.

Monday, August 1, 2016

Manoj Ranjan Nayak v. Purna Chandra Das

Few More Tags : - elements of criminal conspiracy, Section 245 (2)/482/226/227/239 Cr PC, , duty of the court at the stage of framing of charge, Suspicion alone, taking cognizance vis-a-vis framing charge; 

Even if such allegation is taken on its face value, statement of the co- accused cannot form the basis of framing of charge. It was argued that statement of the co-accused cannot be converted or translated into evidence in course of trial.

However, it was argued that in the suit the complainant seeks to enforce his civil rights with regard to disputed land which he purchased in the year 1989 whereas the complaint petition has been filed seeking penal action for commission of offences by the accused persons. Therefore, non-reference of pendency of civil suit does not amount to suppression and is, therefore, not material. 

It is well settled that a conspiracy consists not merely in the intention of two or more, but in the agreement of two or more to do an unlawful act by unlawful means. Intention to do criminal conspiracy has its foundation in an agreement to commit an offence.

"22. In Ram Narayan Popli v. Central Bureau of Investigation, while dealing with the conspiracy the majority opinion laid down that the elements of a criminal conspiracy have been stated to be : (a) an object to be accomplished, (b) a plan or scheme embodying means to accomplish that object, (c) an agreement or understanding between two or more of the accused persons whereby, they become definitely committed to co-operate for the accomplishment of the object by the means embodied in the agreement, or by an effectual means, and (d) in the jurisdiction where the statute required an overt act. It has been further opined that the essence of a criminal conspiracy is the unlawful combination and ordinarily the offence is complete when the combination is framed. No overt act need be done in furtherance of the conspiracy, and that the object of the combination need not be accomplished, in order to constitute an indictable offence. Law making conspiracy a crime is designed to curb immoderate power to do mischief which is gained by a combination of the means. The encouragement and support which co-conspirators give to one another rendering enterprises possible which, if left to individual effect, would have been impossible, furnish the ground for visiting conspirators and abettors with condign punishment. The conspiracy is held to be continued and renewed as to all its members wherever and whenever any member of the conspiracy acts in furtherance of the common design. The two-Judge Bench proceeded to state that for an offence punishable under Section 120-B, the prosecution need not necessarily prove that the perpetrators expressly agree to do or cause to be done illegal act; the agreement may be proved by necessary implication. Offence of criminal conspiracy has its foundation in an agreement to commit an offence. A conspiracy consists not merely in the intention of two or more, but in the agreement of two or more to do an unlawful act by unlawful means."

In course of hearing, learned Senior Advocate appearing for the petitioner cited the decision of Indian Oil Corporation vs. NEPC India Ltd. and others: (2006) 6 Supreme Court Cases 736 wherein Hon'ble Supreme Court has taken note of and deprecated the current practice of misuse of criminal process to put undue pressure in civil disputes.

Order of taking of cognizance of commission of offence is different from order of framing of charge against an accused for commission of offence. A court takes cognizance of commission of offence whereas charge is framed against an accused for commission of offence. At the stage of taking of cognizance, court is required to find out as to whether there is material to prima facie indicate commission of offence. On the other hand, while framing charge, court is to find out as to whether materials on record to indicate grave or strong suspicion against the accused person to have committed the alleged offence.
9. Though there is difference in the language employed in Section 227 of the Cr.P.C. which contemplates discharge of the accused by the Court of Session in cases triable by it, Section 239 of the Cr.P.C. in cases instituted upon the police report and Section 245 of the Cr.P.C. in case instituted otherwise on a police report, as has been pointed out by Hon'ble Supreme Court in State of Tamil Nadu -v- N.Suresh Ranjan and others: 2014 AIR SCW 942, placing reliance on R.S.Nayak -v- A.R.Antulay : AIR 1986 SC 2045, notwithstanding this difference and, which ever provision may be applicable, Court is required at the stage of framing of charge to see that there is prima facie case for proceeding against the accused. Factors which are required to be considered by a court to frame charge or to discharge an accused, and the scope of jurisdiction of the court to determine whether there is sufficient ground for proceeding against an accused, have been elaborately pointed out by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in State of Karnataka -vrs. - L.Muniswamy State of Kerala and Another: AIR 1977 SC 1489 at paragraph 10 as follows:
"On the other hand, the decisions cited by learned counsel for the respondents in Vadilal Panchal v. D.D. Ghadigaonkar, AIR 1960 SC 1113 and Century Spinning & Manufacturing Co. v. State of Maharashtra, AIR 1972 SC 545 show that it is wrong to say that at the stage of framing charges the court cannot apply its judicial mind to the consideration whether or not there is any ground for presuming the commission of the offence by the accused. As observed in the latter case, the order framing a charge affects a person's liberty substantially and therefore it is the duty of the court to consider judicially whether the material warrants the framing of the charge. It cannot blindly accept the decision of the prosecution that the accused be asked to face a trial. In Vadilal Panchal's case Section 203 of the old Code was under consideration, which provided that the Magistrate could dismiss a complaint if after considering certain matters mentioned in the section there was in his judgment no sufficient ground for proceeding with the case. To an extent S.227 of the new Code contains an analogous power which is conferred on the Sessions Court. It was held by this Court, while considering the true scope of S.203 of the old Code that the Magistrate was not bound to accept the result of an enquiry or investigation and that he must apply his judicial mind to the material on which he had to form his judgment. These decisions show that for the purpose of determining whether there is sufficient ground for proceeding against an accused the court possesses a comparatively wider discretion in the exercise of which it can determine the question whether the material on the record, if unrebutted, is such on the basis of which a conviction can be said reasonably to be possible."
10. In P. Vijayan -vrs. - State of Kerala and Another: AIR 2010 SC 663, it has been pointed out by the Hon'ble Supreme Court at paragraph 10 as follows:
"If two views are possible and one of them gives rise to suspicion only, as distinguished from grave suspicion, the Trial Judge will be empowered to discharge the accused and at this stage he is not to see whether the trial will end in conviction or acquittal. Further, the words "not sufficient ground for proceeding against the accused" clearly show that the Judge is not a mere Post Office to frame the charge at the behest of the prosecution, but has to exercise his judicial mind to the facts of the case in order to determine whether a case for trial has been made out by the prosecution. In assessing this fact, it is not necessary for the Court to enter into the pros and cons of the matter or into a weighing and balancing of evidence and probabilities which is really the function of the Court, after the trial starts. At the stage of Section 227, the Judge has merely to sift the evidence in order to find out whether or not there is sufficient ground for proceeding against the accused. In other words, the sufficiency of ground would take within its fold the nature of the evidence recorded by the police or the documents produced before the Court which ex facie disclose that there are suspicious circumstances against the accused so as to frame a charge against him."
11. It has further been observed by the Hon'ble Supreme Court at paragraph 14 as follows:
"Charge may although be directed to be framed when there exists a strong suspicion but it is also trite that the Court must come to a prima facie finding that there exist some materials therefor. Suspicion alone, without anything more, cannot form the basis therefor or held to be sufficient for framing charge."
12. In Shri Satish Mehra -vrs.- Delhi Administration and another : JT 1996 (7) S.C. 6, it has been observed:
"11. In Union of India v. Profullakumar - 1979 Cr.L.J. 154, this Court has observed that the Judge while considering the question of framing the charge has "the undoubted power to sift and weigh the evidence for the limited purpose of finding out whether a prima facie case against the accused has been made out". However, their Lordships pointed out that the test to determine a prima facie case would naturally depend upon the facts of each case and it is difficult to lay down a rule of universal application. "by and large, however, if two views are equally possible and the Judge is satisfied that the evidence produced before him gives rise to some suspicion but not grave suspicion, the Judge would be fully within his right to discharge the accused". At the same time the Court cautioned that a roving enquiry into the pros and cons of the case by weighing the evidence as if he was conducting the trial is not expected even warranted at this stage.
12. An incidental question was emerges in this context is whether the Sessions Judge can look into any material other than those produced by the prosecution. Section 226 of the Code obliges the prosecution to describe the charge brought against the accused and to state by what evidence the guilt of the accused would be proved. The next provision enjoins on the Sessions Judge to decide whether there is sufficient ground to proceed against the accused. In so deciding the Judge has to consider (1) the record of the case and (2) the documents produced therewith. He has then to hear the submissions of the accused as well as prosecution on the limited question whether there is sufficient ground to proceed. What is the scope of hearing submissions? Should it be confine hearing oral arguments alone?
13. Similar situation arises under Section 239 of the Code (which deals with trial of warrant cases on police report). In that situation the Magistrate has to afford the prosecution and the accused an opportunity of being heard besides considering the police report and the documents sent therewith. At these two stages the code enjoins on the court to give audience to the accused for deciding whether it is necessary to proceed to the next stage. It is a matter of exercise of judicial mind. There is nothing in the code which shrinks the scope of such audience to oral arguments. If the accused succeeds in producing any reliable material at that stage which might fatally affect even the very sustainability of the case, it is unjust to suggest that no such material shall be looked into by the Court at that stage. Here the "ground" may be any valid ground including insufficiency of evidence to prove charge.
14. The object of providing such an opportunity as is envisaged in Section 227 of the code is to enable the Court to decide whether it is necessary to proceed to conduct the trial. If the case ends there it gains a lot of time of the Court and saves much human efforts and cost. If the materials produced by the accused even at that early stage would clinch the issue, why should the Court shut it out saying that such documents need be produced only after wasting a lot more time in the name of trial proceedings. Hence, we are of the view that Sessions Judge would be within his powers to consider even materials which the accused may produce at the stage contemplated in Section 227 of the Code.
15. But when the Judge is fairly certain that there is no prospect of the case ending in conviction the valuable time of the Court should not be wasted for holding a trial only for the purpose of formally completing the procedure to pronounce the conclusion on a future date. We are mindful that 12 most of the sessions courts in India are under heavy pressure of work load. If the Sessions Judge is almost certain that the trial would only be an exercise in futility or a sheer waste of time it is advisable to truncate or nip the proceedings at the stage of Section 227 of the Code itself."

14. Thus, save and except vague statement that co- accused gave out that they were engaged in demolishing the boundary wall on being instructed by the petitioner, there is no material to implicate the petitioner with the alleged occurrence. It is well settled that statement of co-accused is not admissible in evidence against another co-accused. At the time of framing of charge, court has to consider the material which has been collected during investigation or enquiry in order to satisfy as to whether there exists sufficient ground to proceed against an accused. It has been pointed out by the Hon'ble Supreme Court in Suresh Budharmal Kalani alias Pappu Kalani vs. State of Maharashtra: (1998) 7 Supreme Court Cases 337 that at the stage of framing of charge, the court is required to confine its attention to only those materials collected during investigation or enquiry which can be legally translated into evidence and not upon further evidence (dehors those materials) that the prosecution may adduce in the trial which would commence only after the charges are framed and the accused denies the charges
Prasant Kumar Pattnaik & Anr v. State of Orissa

"It is not the law that in a criminal case where trial is yet to take place and the matter is at the stage of issuance of summons or taking cognizance, materials relied upon by the accused which are in the nature of public documents or the materials which are beyond suspicion or doubt, in no circumstance, can be looked into by the High Court in exercise of its jurisdiction under Section 482 or for that matter in exercise of revisional jurisdiction under Section 397 of the Code. It is fairly settled now that while exercising inherent jurisdiction under section 482 or revisional jurisdiction under section 397 of the Code in a case where complaint is sought to be quashed, it is not proper for the High Court to consider the defence of the accused or embark upon an enquiry I n respect of merits of the accusations.
However, in an appropriate case, if on the face of the documents - which are beyond suspicion or doubt - placed by the accused, the accusations against him cannot stand, it would be travesty of justice if the accused is relegated to trial and he is asked to prove his defence before the trial court. In such a matter, for promotion of justice or to prevent injustice or abuse of process, the High Court may look into the materials which have significant bearing on the matter at prima facie stage".

Vineet Narain & Others v. Union of India & Another

Tags: -- Jain Diaries, "continuing mandamus", CBI, speedy trial, Article 21/32/141/142/144 Constitution of India, PIL, Vohra Committee Report, Single Directive, reforming CBI, duty of police, Special Police Establishment, Police Act 1861, Sec 173 (8) Cr P.C, Section 6 Prevention of Corruption Act, Section 2/3/4 (1)/6 Delhi Special Police Establishment Act 1946, "superintendence"------meaning, equality, objectives of the Judiciary, The Seven Principles of Public Life, CBI Manual, allegation of inaction by the investigating agencies

  1. This experience revealed to us the need for the insulation of these agencies from any extraneous influence to ensure the continuance of the good work they have commenced. It is this need which has impelled us to examine the structure of these agencies and to consider the necessary steps which would provide permanent insulation to the agencies against extraneous influences to enable them to discharge their duties in the manner required for proper implementation of the rule of law. Permanent measures are necessary to avoid the need of every matter being brought to the court for taking ad hoc measures to achieve the desired results. This is the occasion for us to deal with the structure, constitution and the permanent measures necessary for having a fair and impartial agency. The faith and commitment to the rule of law exhibited by all concerned in these proceedings is the surest guarantee of the survival of democracy of which rule of law is the bedrock. The basic postulate of the concept of equality: "Be you ever so high, the law is above you", has governed all steps taken by us in these proceedings.

2.  It will be seen that the reliefs sought in the writ petitions fall into two broad classes. The first class relates to investigations in the matter of the 'Jain diaries". The second class [prayer (f)[ relates to the manner in which investigations of offences of a similar nature that may occur hereafter should be conducted. 

Procedure Adopted
We have taken the view that, given the political personalities of the propel to be investigated in the "Jain diaries" case and the time already lost in commencing the investigation it was advantageous not to hear the matter through and issue a writ of mandamus, leaving it to the authorities to comply with it, but to keep the matter pending while the investigations were being carried on, ensuring that this was done by monitoring them from time to time and issuing orders in this behalf.

The sum and substance of these orders is that the CBI and other Governmental agencies had not carried out their public duty to investigate the offences disclosed; that none stands above the law so that an alleged offence by him is not required to be investigated; that we would monitor the investigations, in the sense that we would do what we permissibly could to see that the investigations progressed while yet ensuring that we did not direct or channel those investigations or in any other manner prejudice the right of those who might be accused to a full and fair trial. We made it clear that the task of the monitoring court would and the moment a charge-sheet was filed in respect of a particular investigation and that the ordinary processes of the law would then take over. Having regard to the direction in which the investigations were leading, we found it necessary to direct the CBI not to report the progress of the investigations to the person occupying the highest office in the political executive this was done to eliminate any impression of bias or lack of fairness or objectivity and to maintain the credibility of the investigations. In short, the procedure adopted was of "continuing mandamus".

5. Even after this matter was brought to the court complaining of the incrtia of CBI and the other agencies to investigate into the offices because of the alleged involvement of several persons holding high offices in the executive, for quite some time the disinclination of the agencies to precede with the investigation was apparent. The accusation, if true, reveled a nexus between high ranking politicians and bureaucrats who were alleged to have been funded by a source linked with the source funding the terrorists. In view of the funding also through foreign currency, some undesirable foreign elements appeared to be connected. This revealed a grave situation poising a serious threat even to the unity and integrity of the nation. The serious threat posed to the Indian polity could not be underscored. The obvious need for an expeditious and thorough probe which had already been delayed for several years could not but be countenanced. The continuing inertia of the agencies to even commence a proper investigation could not be tolerated any longer. In view of the persistence of that situation, it becomes necessary as the proceedings progressed to make some orders which would activate the CBI and the other agencies to at least commence a fruitful investigation.Merely issuance of a mandamus directing the agencies to perform their task would be futile and, therefore, it was decided to issue directions from time to time and keep the matter pending requiring the agencies to report the progress of investigation so that monitoring by the court could ensure continuance of the investigation. It was, therefore, decided to direct the CBI and other agencies to complete the investigation expeditiously, keeping the court informed from time to time of the progress of the investigation so that the court retained siesin of the matter till the investigation was completed and the chargesheets were filed in the competent court for being dealt with, thereafter, in accordance with law.

The facts and circumstances of the present case do indicate that it is of utmost public importance that this matter is examined thoroughly by this Court to ensure that all Government agencies, entrusted with the duty to discharge their functions and obligations in accordance with law, do so, bearing in mind constantly the concept of equality enshrined in the Constitution and the basic tenet of rule of law : "Be you ever so high, the law is above you".

6. "The true scope of this writ petition has been indicated during the earlier hearings. At this stage, when some charge sheets have been filed in the Special Court and there is considerable publicity in the media regarding this matter, with some speculation about its true scope, it is appropriate to make this order to form a part of the record.

7. It is significant that the machinery of investigation started moving as a result of these orders and after investigation of the allegations made against several persons the basis of the contents of the Jain Diaries, Chargesheets were filed in the competent court in the first instance against 14 persons, as reported to the court on 22.2.1996. Chargesheets against many other persons were filed in the competent court thereafter as reported later from time to time. In all, 34 Chargesheets against 54 persons have been filed on this basis. Thus, as indicated earlier, the purpose of these proceedings to the extent of the complaint of inertia of the investigating agencies came to an end with the filing of these chargesheets, since the merits of the accusation against each individual has, thereafter, to be considered and dealt with by the competent court at the trial, in accordance with law. Trial in the competent court is now a separate proceeding.
It is significant that the machinery of investigation started moving as a result of these orders......
8. "We do not consider it appropriate to permit any intervention in this matter. Shri Anil Diwan has been requested by us to appear as Amicus Curiae in this matter. He has kindly agreed to do so. It is open to anyone who so desires, to assist Shri Anil Diwan and to make available to him whatever material he chooses to rely on in public interest to enable Shri Diwan to effectively and properly discharge functions as Amicus Curiae. Except for this mode of assistance to the learned Amicus Curiae, we do not permit any person either to be impleaded as party or to appear as an intervenor. In our opinion, this is necessary for expeditious disposal of the matter and to avoid the focus on the crux of the matter getting diffused in the present case by the appearance of many persons acting independently in the garb of public interest.

9. The purpose of this proceeding is to command performance of the duty under law to properly investigate into the accusation of commission of the crime and to file a chargesheet in the competent court, if a prima faice case is made out. This purpose has been served in the above three cases, in respect of which no further action in this proceeding is called for. Accordingly, this proceeding has come to an end, in so far as it related to the above three criminal cases. For the remaining part, it is to continue till the end result prescribed by law is achieved. The concerned court in which the chargesheet has been filed has to proceed entirely in accordance with law without the slightest impression that there is any parallel proceeding in respect of the same matter pending in this court.

"We do not consider it appropriate to permit any intervention in this matter. Shri Anil Diwan has been requested by us to appear as Amicus Curiae in this matte. He has kindly agreed to do so. It is open to anyone who so desires, to assist Shri Anil Diwan and to make available to him whatever material he chooses to rely on in public interest to enable Shri Diwan to effectively and properly discharge functions as Amicus Curiae. Except for this mode of assistance to the learned Amicus Curiae, we do not permit any person either to be impleaded as party or to appear as an intervenor. In our opinion, this is necessary for expeditious disposal of the matter and to avoid the focus on the crux of the matter getting diffused in the present case by the appearance of many persons acting independently in the garb of public interest.
10. 21. A note of caution may be appropriate. No occasion should arise for an impression that the publicity attaching to these matters has tended to dilute the emphasis on the essentials of a fair trial and the basic principles of jurisprudence including the presumption of innocence of the accused unless found guilty at the end of the trial. This requirement, undoubtedly has to be kept in view during the entire trial. It is reiterated, that any observation made by this Court for the purpose of the proceedings pending here has no bearing on the merits of the accusation, and is not to influence the trial in any manner. Care must be taken to ensure that the credibility of the judicial process is not undermanned in any manner. This proceeding is to continue in respect of the remaining matters only which are incomplete. "

The concerned court in which the charge-sheet has been filed has to proceed entirely in accordance with law without the slightest impression that there is any parallel proceeding in respect of the same matter pending in this court.

21. A note of caution may be appropriate. No occasion should arise for an impression that the publicity attaching to these matters has tended to dilute the emphasis on the essentials of a fair trial and the basic principles of jurisprudence including the presumption of innocence of the accused unless found guilty at the end of the trial. This requirement, undoubtedly has to be kept in view during the entire trial. It is reiterated, that any observation made by this Court for the purpose of the proceedings pending here has no bearing on the merits of the accusation, and is not to influence the trial in any manner. Care must be taken to ensure that the credibility of the judicial process is not undermanned in any manner. This proceeding is to continue in respect of the remaining matters only which are incomplete. " ... ... ...
Dr. Subramaniam Swamy Order dated 24.02.1997 :
".. ... ...

It is also made clear to the petitioner that the petition having been entertained as a public interest litigation in view of the public interest involved, the locus of the petitioner is confined only to assisting the court through amicus curiae appointed by the court and that the petitioner has no independent or additional right in the conduct or hearing of the proceedings hereafter.

In-Camera Proceedings: --
During the monitoring of the investigations, the Solicitor General/Attorney General, from time to time, reported the progress made during the course of investigation, in order to satisfy us that the agencies were not continuing to drag their feet and the "continuing mandamus" was having the effect of making the agencies perform their statutory function. The procedure adopted by us was merely to hear what they had to report or the CBI Director and the Revenue Secretary had to tell us to be satisfied that the earlier inaction was not persisting. We maintained this stance throughout. We also ensured that no observation of any kind was made by us nor was any response given which may be construed as our opinion about the merits of the case or the accusation against any accused. We also did not identify or name any accused during performance of this task. (Process : - )At the very outset, the then Solicitor General Shri Dipankar P. Gupta requested that a part of the proceedings be held `in camera' to enable him to state certain facts and, if necessary, place before us material, the secrecy of which was required to be maintained for integrity of the investigation and also to avoid any prejudice to the concerned accused. In these circumstance, such a procedure was adopted only to the extent necessary for this propose, in the interest of justice, and that is how a part of some hearings was held in camera. This innovation in the procedure was made, on request, to reconcile the interest of justice with that of the accused.
It is settled that the requirement of a public hearing in a court of law for a fair trial is subject to the need of proceedings being held in camera to the extent necessary in public interest and to avoid prejudice to the accused. We consider it appropriate to mention these facts in view of the nature of these proceedings wherein innovations in procedure were required to be made from time to time to sub- serve the public interest, avoid any prejudice to the accused and to advance the cause of justice. The medium of "continuing mandamus", was a new tool forged because of the peculiar needs of this matter.
Inertia was the common rule whenever the alleged offender was a powerful person. Thus, it became necessary to take measures to ensure permanency in the remedial effect to prevent reversion to inertia of the agencies in such matters.
Everyone against whom there is reasonable suspicion of committing a crime has to be treated equally and similarly under the law and probity in public life is of great significance. The constitution and working of the investigating agencies revealed the lacuna of its inability to perform whenever powerful persons were involved. For this reason, a close examination of the constitution of these agencies and their control assumes significance. No doubt, the overall control of the agencies and responsibility of their functioning has to be in the exhaustive, but then a scheme giving the needed insulation from extraneous influences even of the controlling executive, is imperative. It is this exercise which became necessary in these proceedings for the future. This is the surviving scope of these writ petitions.

Point for Consideration 

As a result of the debate in these proceedings and into experience gained thereby the Union of India came to realise that an in-depth study of the selection of personnel of these agencies, particularly the CBI and the Enforcement Directorate of the Revenue Department, and their functioning is necessary. The Government of India, sharing this perception, by an Order No. S/937/SS(ISP)/93 dated 9th July, 1993 constituted a Committee headed by the then Home Secretary Shri N.N.Vohra to take stock of all available information about the activities of crime syndicates/mafia organisations which had development links with, and were being protected by, government functionaries and political personalities. It was stated that on the basis of recommendations of the Committee the Government shall determine the need, if any, to establish a special organisation/agency to regularly collect information and pursue cases against such elements. The Committee was headed by the then Home Secretary Shri N.N. Vohra and had as its Members - Secretary (Revenue), Director, Intelligence Bureau, Director, CBI, Joint Secretary (PP), Ministry of Home Affairs. The Committee gave its recommendations dated 5.10.1993. It has made scathing comments and has painted a dismal picture of the existing sene. It has said that the network of the mafia is virtually running a parallel government pushing the State apparatus into irrelevance. The Committee recommended the creation of a nodal agency under the Ministry of Home Affairs for the collation and compilation of all information received from Intelligence Burcau (IB), Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) and Research and Analysis Wing (R&AW) and the various agencies under the Department of Revenue. The report is significant for the dismal picture of the existing scenario which discloses a powerful nexus between the bureaucracy and politicians with the mafia gangs, smugglers and the underworld. The report of the Vohra Committee is the opinion of some top bureaucrats and it confirmed our worst suspicions focusing the need of improving the procedure for constitution and monitoring the functioning of intelligence agencies. There is, thus, no doubt that this exercise cannot be delayed further.
The same perception of the Government of India led it to constitute another Committee by Order No. 226/2/97-AVD-II dated 8th September, 1997 comprising of Shri B.G. Deshmukh, former Cabinet Secretary, Shri N.N. Vohra, Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister and Shri S.V. Giri, Central Vigilance Commissioner, called the Independent Review Committee (IRC). The order reads as under :
"WHEREAS the Government of India is of the opinion that it is necessary to set up a Committee for going into the matters mentioned hereinafter;
2. NOW, THEREFORE, a Committee of the following is hereby set up :-
(i) Shri B.G. Deshmukh, former Cabinet Secretary
(ii) Shri N.N. Vohra, Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister
(iii) Shri S.V.Giri, Central Vigilance Commissioner Shri N.N. Vohra shall act as Convenor.
3. The terms of reference of the Committee ar as under :-
(i) To monitor the functioning of the nodal agency established by the Ministry of Home Affairs in pursuance of the recommendations of the Vohra Committee Report.
(ii) To examine the present structure and working of the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), the Enforcement Directorate and related agencies to suggest the changes, if any, needed to ensure : [a] that offences alleged to have been committed by any person, particularly those in positions of high authority, are registered, investigated and prosecuted fairly and expeditiously, ensuring against, inter alia, external pressure, arbitrary withdrawals or transfers of personnel etc., and ensuring adequate protection to the concerned functionaries to effectively discharge their duties and responsibilities;
[b] that there are sufficient cheeks and balances to ensure that the powers of investigation and prosecution are not misused; [c] that there are no arbitrary restrictions to the initiation of investigations or launching of prosecutions.

4. The Committee should give its report with regard to the items mentioned in paragraph 3(ii) above within a period of 3 month s."

It was urged that refusal of sanction with reasons would enable judicial review of that decision in case of any grievance against refusal of the sanction.

Need for Courts Intervention
The IRC is a body constituted by the Central Government itself as a result of its perception that the constitution and functioning of the CBI, CVC and Directorate of Enforcement require a close scrutiny in the background of the recent unsatisfactory functioning of these agencies with a view to improve t heir functioning. The view taken by the IRC is a reaffirmation of this belief shared b y everyone. The preface to the report indicates the reason for the constitution of the IRC and says that "In the past several years, there has been progressive increase in allegation of corruption involving public servants. Understandably, cases of this nature have attracted heightened media and public attention. A general impression appears to have gained ground that the concerned Central investigating agencies are subject to extraneous pressures and have been indulging in dilatory tactics in not bringing the guilty to book. The decisions of higher courts to directly monitor investigations in certain cases have added to the aforesaid belief." There can thus be no doubt that there is need for the exercise we were called upon to perform and which has occasioned consideration of this crucial issue by this Court in exercise of its powers conferred by the Constitution of India.

"4. At the outset, we would indicate that the nature of proceedings before the High Court is somewhat similar to those pending in this Court in Vineet Narain v. Union of India, 1996 (2) SCC 199 and Anukul Chandara Pradhan v. Union of India, 1996 (6) SCC 354 and, therefore, the High Court is required to proceed with the matter in a similar manner. It has to be borne in mind that the purpose of these proceedings in essentially to ensure performance of the statutory duty by the CBI and the other government agencies in accordance with law for the proper implementation of the rule of law.
To achieve this object a fair, honest and expeditious investigation into every reasonable accusation against each and every person reasonably suspected of involvement in the alleged offences has to be made strictly in accordance with law. The duty of the Court in such proceedings is, therefore, to ensure that the CBI and other government agencies do their duty and do so strictly in conformity with law. In these proceedings, the Court is not required to go into the merits of the accusation or even to express any opinion thereon, which is a matter for consideration by the competent court in which the charge-sheet is filed and the accused have to face trial. It is, therefore, necessary that not even an observation relating to the merits of t he accusation is made by the Court in these proceedings lest it prejudice the accused at the trial. The nature of these proceeding may be described as that of "continuing mandamus" to require performance of its duty by the CBI and the other government agencies concerned. 

This must be borne in mind as also that the scope and purpose of a proceeding like the present is to ensure a proper and faithful performance of its duty by the police officer by resort to the prerogative writ of mandamus."
The Minister's power in these matters has, therefore, to be understood as circumscribed by these limitations under the law.

History of CBI

It is useful to refer at this stage to the history of the CBI. The Special Police Establishment was formed during the World War II when large sums of public money were being spent in connection with the War and there arise enormous potential for corruption amongst the officers dealing with the supplies. An executive order was made by the Government of India in 1941 setting up the Special Police Establishment (SPE) under a DIG in the then Department of War. The need for a central government agency to investigate c ases of bribery and corruption by the Central Government servants continued and, therefore, the Delhi Special Policy Establishment act was brought into force in 1946. Under this Act, the superintendence of the Special Police Establishment was transferred to the Home Department and its function were enlarged to cover all departments of the Government of India. The jurisdiction of the SPE extended to all the Union Territories and could also be extended to the States with the consent of the concerned State Governments. Then the SPE was put under the charge of Director, Intelligence Bureau. Later in 1948 a post of Inspector General of Police, SPE was created and the organisation was placed under his charge. The Central Bureau of Investigation was established on 1.4.1963 vide Government of India's Resolution No, 4/31/61- T/MHA. This was done to meet the felt need of having a central police agency at the disposal of the Central Government to investigate into cases not only of bribery and corruption but also those relating to the breach of central fiscal laws, frauds in government departments and PSUs and other serious crimes. On enlargement of the role of CBI an Economic Offences Wing was added to the existing Divisions of the CBI. In 1887 tow Divisions were created in the CBI known as Anti-Corruption Division and Special Crimes Division, the latter dealing with cases of conventional crimes besides economic offences. In 1994 due to increased workload relating to bank frauds and economic offences a separate Economic Offences Wing was established in CBI with the result that since then the CBI has three Investigation Divisions, namely, Anti-Corruption Division, Special Crimes Division and Economic Offences Division. Further particulars thereof are not necessary in the present context.

The position of Judges of High Courts and Supreme Court, who are constitutional functionaries, is distinct, and the independence of judiciary, keeping it free from any extraneous influence, including that from executive, is the rationale of the decision in K. Veeraswami (supra).

The Single Directive has to be examined in this background. The law does not classify offenders differently for treatment thereunder, including investigation of offences and persecution for offences. according to their status in life. Every person accused of committing the same offences is to be dealt with in the same manner in accordance with law, which is equal in its application to everyone. The Single Directive is applicable only to certain p[person above the specified level who are described as "decision making officers". The question is whether any distinction can be made for them for the purpose of investigation of an offence of which they are accused.

There are ample powers conferred by Article 32 read with Article 142 to make orders which have the effect of law by virtue of article 141 and there is mandate to all authorities to act in aid of the orders of this Court as provided in Article 144 of the Constitution. In a catena of decisions of this Court, this power has been recognised and exercised, if need be, by issuing necessary directions to fill the vacuum till such time the legislature steps in to cover the gap or the executive discharges its role.

"The obligation of this court under Article 32 of the Constitution for the enforcement of these fundamental rights in the absence of legislation must be viewed along with the rule of judiciary envisaged in the Beijing Statement of Principles of the Independence of the Judiciary in the LAWASLA region. These principles were accepted by the Chief Justices of Asia and the Pacific at Beijing in 1995 (*) As amended at Manila, 28th August, 1997 as those representing the minimum standards necessary to be observed in order to maintain the independence and effective functioning of the judiciary The objectives of the judiciary mentioned in the Beijing Statement are: "Objectives of the Judiciary:
10. The objectives and functions of the Judiciary include the following:
(a) to ensure that all persons are able to live securely under the Rule of Law:
(b) to promote, within the proper limits of the judicialfunction, the observance and
the attainment of human rights; and
(c) to administer the law impartially among persons and between persons and the State."
Thus, an exercise of this kind by the court is now a well settled practice which has taken firm roots in our constitutional jurisprudence. This exercise is essential to fill the void in the absence of suitable legislation to cover the field.
As pointed out in Vishakha (supra), it is the duty of the executive to fill the vacuum by executive orders because its field is coterminous with that of the legislature, and where there is inaction even by the executive, for whatever reason, the judiciary must step in, in exercise of its constitutional obligations under the aforesaid provisions to provide a solution till such time as the legislature acts to perform its role by enacting proper legislation to cover the field.
On this basis, we now proceed to give the directions enumerated hereafter for rigid compliance till such time as the legislature steps in to substitute them by proper legislation. These directions made under Article 32 read with Article 142 to implement the rule of law wherein the concept of equality enshrined in Article 14 is embedded, have the force of law under Article 141 and, by virtue of Article 144, it is the duty of all authorities, civil and judicial, in the territory of India to act in aid of this Court. In the issuance of these directions, we have accepted and are reiterating as far as possible the recommendations made by the IRC.
It is a similar perception in England which has led to the constitution of a Committee headed by Lord Nolan on 'Standards in Public Life'. In Volume 1 of Lord Nolan's Report (1995), the general recommendations made are: General recommendation
  1. Some of our conclusions have general application across the entire service;

Principles of public life
5. The general principles of conduct which underpin public life need to be restated. We have done this. The seven principles of selflessness, integrity, objectivity, accountability, openness, honesty and leadership are set out in full on page 14.
Codes of Conduct
6. All public bodies should draw up Codes of Conduct incorporating these principles Independent Scrutiny
7. Internal systems for maintaining standards should be supported by independent scrutiny.
8. More needs to be done to promote and reinforce standards of conduct in public bodies, in particular through guidance and training, including induction training".
The Seven Principles of Public Life are stated in the Report by Lord Nolan, thus:
The Seven Principles of Public Life


Holders of public office should take decisions solely in terms of the public interest. They should not do so in order to gain financial or other material benefits for themselves, their family, or their friends.


Holders of public office should not place themselves under any financial or other obligation to outside individuals or organisations that might influence them in the performance of their official duties.

In carrying out public business, including making public appointments, awarding contracts, or recommending individuals for rewards and benefits, holders of public office should make choices on merit.

Holders of public office are accountable for their decisions and actions to the public and must submit themselves to whatever scrutiny is appropriate to their office.

Holders of public office should be as open as possible about all the decisions and actions that they take. They should give reasons for their decisions and restrict information only when the wider public interest clearly demands.

Holders of public office have a duty to declare any private interests relating to their public duties and to take steps to resolve any conflicts arising in a way that protects the public interest.

Holders of public office should promote and support these principles by leadership and example."
These principles of public life are of general application in every democracy and one is expected to bear them in mind while scrutinising the conduct of every holder of a public office. It is trite that the holders of public offices are entrusted with certain powers to be exercised in public interest alone and, therefore, the office is held by them in trust for the people. Any deviation from the path of rectitude by any of them amounts to a breach of trust and must be severely dealt with instead of being pushed under the carpet. If the conduct amounts to an offence, it must be promptly investigated and the offender against whom a prima facie case is made out should be prosecuted expeditiously so that the majesty of law is upheld and the rule of law vindicated. It is duty of the judiciary to enforce the rule of law and, therefore, to guard against erosion of the rule of law.
The adverse impact of lack of probity in public life leading to a high degree of corruption is manifold. It also has adverse effect on foreign investment and funding from the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank who have warned that future aid to under-developed countries may be subject to the requisite steps being taken to eradicate corruption, which prevents international aid from reaching those for whom it is meant. Increasing corruption has led to investigative journalism which is of value to a free society. The need to highlight corruption in public life through the medium of public interest litigation invoking judicial review may be frequent in India but is not unknown in other countries: R v Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs, (1995) 1 WLR 386.
Of course, the necessity of desirable procedures evolved by court rules to ensure that such a litigation is properly conducted and confined only to mattes of public interest is obvious. This is the effort made in these proceedings for the enforcement of fundamental rights guaranteed in the Constitution in exercise of powers conferred on this Court for doing complete justice in a cause. It cannot be doubted that there is a serious human rights aspect involved in such a proceeding because the prevailing corruption in public life, if permitted to continue unchecked, has ultimately the deleterious effect of eroding the Indian polity.
As a result of the aforesaid discussion, we hereby direct as under:
1. The Central Vigilance Commission (CVC) shall be given statutory status.
2. Selection for the post of Central Vigilance Commissioner shall be made by a Committee comprising the Prime Minister, Home Minister and the Leader of the Opposition from a panel of outstanding civil servants and others with impeccable integrity to be furnished by the Cabinet Secretary. The appointment shall be made by the President on the basis of the recommendations made by the Committee. This shall be done immediately.
3. The CVC shall be responsible for the efficient functioning of the CBI. While Government shall remain answerable for the CBI's functioning, to introduce visible objectivity in the mechanism to be established for over viewing the CBI's working, the CVC shall be entrusted with the responsibility of superintendence over the CBI's functioning. The CBI shall report to the CVC about cases taken up by it for investigation; progress of investigations; cases in which chargesheets are filed and their progress. The CVC shall review the progress of all cases moved by the CBI for sanction of prosecution of public servants which are pending with competent authorities, specially those in which sanction has been delayed or refused.
4. The Central Government shall take all measures necessary to ensure that the CBI functions effectively and efficiently and is viewed as a non-partisan agency.
5. The CVC shall have a separate section in its Annual Report on the CBI's functioning after the supervisory function is transferred to it.
6. Recommendations for appointment of the Director, CBI shall be made by a Committee headed by the Central Vigilance Commissioner with the Home Secretary and Secretary (Personnel) as members. The views of the incumbent Director shall be considered by the Committee for making the best choice. The Committee shall draw up a panel of IPS officers on the basis of their seniority, integrity, experience in investigation and anti - corruption work. The final selection shall be made by Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) from the panel recommended by the Selection Committee. If none among the panel is found suitable, the reasons the reasons thereof shall be recorded and the Committee asked to draw up a fresh panel.
7. The Director, CBI shall have a minimum tenure of two years, regardless of the date of his superannuation. This would ensure that an officer suitable in all respects is not ignored merely because he has less than two years to superannuate from the date of his appointment.
8. The transfer of an incumber Director, CBI in an extraordinary situation, including the need for him to take up a more important assignment, should have the approval of the Selection Committee.
9. The Director, CBI shall have full freedom for allocation of work within the agency as also for constituting teams for investigations. Any change made by the Director, CBI in the Head of an investigative team should be for cogent reasons and for improvement in investigation, the reasons being recorded.
10. Selection/extention of tenure of officers upto the level of Joint Director (JD) shall be decided by a Board comprising the central Vigilance Commissioner, Home Secretary and Secretary (Personnel) with the Director, CBI providing the necessary inputs. The extension of tenure or premature repatriation of officers upto the level of Joint Director shall be with final approval of the Board. Only cases pertaining to the appointment or extension of tenure of officers of the rank of Joint Director or above shall be referred to the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) for decision.
11. Proposals for improvement of infrastructure, methods of investigation, etc. should be decided urgently. In order to strengthen CBI's in-house expertise, professionals from the revenue, banking and security sectors should be inducted into the CBI.
12. The CBI Manual based on statutory provisions of the Cr. P.C. provides essential guidelines for the CBI's functioning. It is imperative that the CBI adheres scrupulously to the provisions in the Manual in relation to its investigative functions, like raids, scizure and arrests. Any deviation from the established procedure should be viewed seriously and severe disciplinary action taken against the concerned officials.
13. The Director, CBI shall be responsible for ensuring the filing of chargesheets in courts within the stipulated time limits, and the matter should be kept under constant review by the Director, CBI
14. A document on CBI's functioning should be published within three months to provide the general public with a feedback on investigations and information for redress of genuine grievances in a manner which does not compromise with the operational requirements of the CBI.
15. Time limit of three months for grant of sanction for prosecution must be strictly adhered to. However, additional time of one month may be allowed where consultation is required with the Attorney General (AG) or any other law officer in the AG's office.
16. The Director, CBI should conduct regular appraisal of personnel to prevent corruption and/or inefficiency in the agency.
1. A Selection Committee headed by the Central Vigilance Commissioner and including the Home Secretary, Secretary (Personnel) and Revenue Secretary, shall prepare a panel for appointment of the Director, Enforcement Directorate. The appointment to the post of Director shall be made by the Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC) from the panel recommended by the Selection Committee.
2. The Director, Enforcement Director like Director, CBI shall have a minimum tenure of two years. In his case also, premature transfer for any extraordinary reason should be approved by the aforesaid Selection Committee headed by the Central Vigilance commissioner.
3. In view of the importance of the post of Director, Enforcement Directorate, it shall be upgraded to that of a Additional Secretary/Special Secretary to the Government.
4. Officers of the Enforcement Directorate handling sensitive assignments shall be provided adequate security to enable them to discharge their functions fearlessly.
5. Extensions of tenure upto the level of Joint Director in the Enforcement Directorate should be decided by the said Committee headed by the Central Vigilance Commissioner.
6. There shall be no premature media publicity by the CBI/Enforcement Directorate.
7. Adjudication/commencement of prosecution shall be made by the enforcement Directorate within a period of one year.
8. The Director, Enforcement Directorate shall monitor and ensure speedy completion of investigations/adjudications and launching of prosecutions. Revenue Secretary must review their progress regularly.
9. For speedy conduct of investigations abroad, the procedure to approve filing of applications for Letters Rogatory shall be streamlined and, if necessary, Revenue Secretary authorised to grant the approval
10. A comprehensive circular shall be published by the Directorate to inform the public about the procedures/systems of its functioning for the sake of transparency.
11. In-house legal advice mechanism shall be strengthened by appointment of competent legal advisers in the CBI/Directorate of Enforcement.
12. The Annual Report of the Department of Revenue shall contain a detailed account on the working of the Enforcement Directorate.
1. A Nodal Agency headed by the Home Secretary with Member (Investigation), Central Board of Direct Taxes, Director General, Revenue Intelligence, Director, Enforcement and Director, CBI as members, shall be constituted for coordinated action in cases having politico-bureaucrat- criminal nexus.
2. The Nodal Agency shall meet at least once every month.
  1. Working and efficacy of the Nodal Agency should be watched for about one year so as to improve it upon the basis of the experience gained within this period. IV
1. A panel of competent lawyers of experience and impeccable reputation shall be prepared with the advice of the Attorney General Their services shall be utilised as Prosecuting Counsel in cases of significance. Even during the course of investigation of an offence, the advice of a lawyer chosen from the panel should be taken by the CBI/Enforcement Directorate.
2. Every prosecution which results in the discharge or acquittal of the accused must be reviewed by a lawyer on the panel and, on the basis of the opinion given, responsibility should be fixed for dereliction of duty, if any, of the concerned officer. In such cases, strict action should be taken against the officer found guilty of dereliction of duty.
3. The preparation of the panel of lawyers with approval of the Attorney General shall be completed within three months.
4. Steps shall be taken immediately for the constitution of an able and impartial agency comprising persons of unimpeachable integrity to perform functions akin to those of the Director of Prosecutions in U.K. On the constitution of such a body, the task of supervising prosecutions launched by the CBI/Enforcement Directorate shall be entrusted to it.
5. Till the constitution of the aforesaid body, Special Counsel shall be appointed for the conduct of important trials on the recommendation of the Attorney General or any other law officer designated by him.
The learned amicus curiae had urged us to issue directions for the appointment of an authority akin to the Special or Independent Counsel in the United States of America for the investigation of charges in politically sensitive matters and for the prosecution of those cases and to ensure that appointments to sensitive posts in the CBI and other enforcement agencies and transfers therefrom were not made by the political executive. We are of the view that the time for these drastic steps has not come. It is our hope that it never will, for we entertain the belief that the investigative agencies shall function far better now, having regard to all that has happened since these writ petition were admitted and to the directions which are contained in this judgment. The personnel of the enforcement agencies should not now lack the courage and independence to go about their task as they should, even where those to be investigated are prominent and powerful persons.
In view of the problem in the States being even more acute, as claborately discussed in the Report of the National Police Commission (1979), there is urgent need for the State Government also to set up credible mechanism for selection of the Police Chief in the States. The Central Government must pursue the matter within the State Governments and ensure that a similar mechanism, as indicated above, is set up in each State for the selection/appointment, tenure, transfer and posting of not merely the Chief of the State Police but also all police officers of the rank of Superintendent of Police and above. It is shocking to hear, a matter of common knowledge, that in some States the tenure of a Superintendent of Police is on an average only a fee months and transfers are made for whimsical reasons. Apart from demoralising the police force, it has also the adverse effect of politicizing the personnel. It is, therefore, essential that prompt measures are taken by the Central Government within the ambit of their constitutional powers in the federation to impress upon the State Governments that such a practice is alien to the envisaged constitutional machinery. The situation described in the National Police Commission's Report (1979) was alarming and it has become much worse by now. The desperation of the Union Home Minister in his letters to the state Governments, placed before us at the hearing, reveal a distressing situation which must be cured, if the rule of law is to prevail. No action within the constitutional scheme found necessary to remedy the situations is too stringent in these circumstances.
In the result, we strike down Directive No. 4.7(3) of the Single Directive quoted above and issue the above directions, which have to be construed in the light of the earlier discussion. The Report of the Independent Review Committee (IRC) and its recommendations which are similar to this extent can be read, if necessary, for a proper appreciation of these directions. To the extent we agree with the conclusions and recommendations of the IRC, and that is a large area, we have adopted the same in the formulation of the above directions. These directions require the strict compliance/adherence of the Union of India and all concerned.
The writ petitions are disposed of in the above terms Criminal Misc. Petition Nos. 5879-5882 of 1997 In view of the disposal of the writ petitions in the manner indicated above and in the facts and circumstances of the cases, we do not consider it necessary now to examine the appointment of Shri R.C. Sharma as Director, CBI. Moreover, the tenure of Shri Sharma as Director, CBI is to end soon. We make it clear that Shri Sharma is not to be continued as CBI Director beyond the date of expiry of his present tenure. Accordingly, these Crl. M. Ps. are disposed of in this manner.
In view of the withdrawal of C.W.P.No.2992 of 1997 in the Delhi High Court as required by this Court's order dated 11.9.1997, no further order for the disposal of C.W.P. No. 2992 of 1997 is necessary.